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My now ex bf have been together for 6 1/2 years, thick and thin. We’re best friends too. We started dating when I was 20 and him 19. We’ve always relied on eachother for anything. I moved to college and graduated a year ago, him he still has about another 6 months left. Things were fine up till about month ago. In our college group of friends, he started coming home real late (we share a place for close to a year) course students life that’s how it is sometimes..but he started hanging around this one chick in our group, she broke up with her ex and started flirting with everyone in the group
I’m 19 years old and I’m a university student.
I have a problem with my personality.
For me, it’s difficult to make a friend. Until now, I never trust a friend so I always make distance with my friends. I don’t know. I never know the real reason why I become like this. In my heart and mind, sincerely, I wanna make lots friend. But in fact, I can’t. I have no self confidence and always afraid for making faults or do some unusual things. I like to do everything by myself..
I always prioritize my prestige. I choose to hide under shell and do nothing because I’m afraid to know what
Hi I have a dad that yells and my family cant take it and I am scared because of it.
I have been with my husband for almost 7 years. We both have Bipolar he has bipolar 1 and I have bipolar 2. I knew getting into this relationship it would be work but I married him anyways. We fought a lot and while later I was pregnant with my first child, my husband ended up having an affair with a girl from work. I finally found out and I was devastated. We did end up staying together and ever since then I have been trying to get over this problem of his. He is always mad at me and always yelling at me.We had a second child and she is completely attached to him and he is with her too.He le
I just moved to Tennessee roughly 3 weeks ago. I’m coming from a town of 5,000 people – my high school class being 120 people. My new school is much larger – my class is around 500 people. I’m coming in as a senior and I don’t deal with change well. I also don’t like being around a lot of people. I’ve pretty much taken care of the most nerve-wracking parts of the school day. I have study hall in the library and eat lunch in the hall outside the band room. But I’m still really anxious both before and during school.
This whole move has been really hard to get through. I can’t continu
I am 16 year old girl who was raped as a child by my mother’s boyfriend. My mother did nothing about it and went on to marry him.
I currently live with my dad and step mom, and although they aren’t the best parents, they’re better than the alternative.
About two years ago, I was given a psychiatric evaluation and it came back with a result of major depression.
For a while I believed I was misdiagnosed and thought it was bipolar. I had depressive episodes as well as times that I can only describe as the way a person would act if someone put a gun to their head and told them “be happy or
Hello. I’m looking for better questions to ask myself and/or a prospective therapist so that the client/patient relationship will be one of healing for me instead of hurtfulness hurled towards me. I cannot name here where I have sought treatment; but I am getting so frustrated with myself plus the way things are going in finding a therapist who can help start my thinking to go in the right direction out of any Major Depressive episodes I fall into. Because of too many allergic reactions to previous meds, Psychiatrists will not even attempt putting me on anything anymore. When I asked my l
Do women who work in typically male dominated jobs “play down” their femininity in order to be gain more respect from their male co-workers? In this episode we’ll explore this stereotype threat as well as something you may not have heard of: the lipstick effect. How do men and women change their appearance or their behavior during times of economic depression? In this all-gender episode we look at these issues as well as why the new Volkswagen Beetle has changed its appearance. Yes, the 2012 Volkswagen Beetle has become more masculine, but why?
While this conversation may have never occurred, it goes without saying that the rich do indeed differ from the poor. In this second part of a four part PYM series I will be exploring precisely how the rich differ from the poor–in a psychological sense at least. In the first post, I discussed how one’s social class status–that is, the money, education, and occupation status of one’s family–influences the concept of choice. In this second post, I discuss how social class influences patterns of empathy.
Emotions are an important part of everyday life–they represent another language that we use to communicate with other individuals. This feature of emotions is what makes them so important for our everyday social lives. In particular, navigating social life depends on empathy–that is, the sharing and understanding of emotion experiences and affective states. Empathy includes a number of emotion processes. For example, empathic accuracy–the ability to accurately read others’ emotions– is a form of empathy focused on understanding others’ subjective experience. Another aspect of empathy is emotional contagion–that is, the extent individuals mimic or re-experience the emotions of others.
|Reading faces is critical for social life|
I believe that differences between individuals from relatively upper- and lower-class backgrounds lead to differences in empathy. This prediction is derived from the fact that the environments of lower-class individuals are relatively dependent on the social environment and on others. Disposed to reduced social and economic resources, lower-class individuals’ outcomes are more likely to hinge on outside forces. These conditions make it so that it is more costly for lower-class individuals to mis-read others’ emotions.
In contrast, abundant social and economic resources allow relatively upper-class individuals to navigate the social world without (for the most part) incurring social costs that come from not reading others’ emotions. In essence, while upper-class individuals can remain blissfully unaware of others’ emotions, their lower-class counterparts must be vigilant of the emotions of others to identify both social opportunities and potential social costs.
Research supports this prediction. For instance, in one illustrative study, University of Toronto employees from different educational backgrounds took an emotional intelligence test where they attempted to guess the emotions displayed in others’ facial expressions. Surprisingly, the high-school educated participants in the sample were more accurate at identifying emotions in these photographs than were their college-educated counterparts. In another study in this research, undergraduates engaged in a mock job interview alongside another student. After the interview, participants guessed the emotions experienced by their partner. Participants who reported that they were higher in social class rank in society (e.g., at the top of society’s social ladder) were worse at accurately guessing the emotions their partner experienced during the interview relative to lower-class rank participants (Kraus et al., 2010).
Given that lower-class individuals are more dependent on their social environments and on others than their upper-class counterparts, we might also expect that these individuals will exhibit more emotional contagion in interactions. Specifically, being constantly vigilant of others’ emotions may make an individual prone to unintentionally experiencing the emotions of others.
|Blissfully unaware of others’ emotions|
That is precisely what the research suggests: In one study, participants engaged in a teasing interaction with their friend where they came up with a nickname and a funny story to tell about their friend. Participants reported the income and education of their parents, and also rated their emotions before and during this teasing interaction. Interestingly, for lower-class friends, their hostile emotions (e.g., anger, contempt, and disgust) became more similar to those of their friend during the interaction. That is, if lower-class participants’ friend felt hostility prior to the interaction, lower-class individuals tended to feel more hostile over the course of the interaction. In contrast, upper-class individuals’ hostile emotions remained completely independent of their friend’s emotions (Kraus, Horberg, et al., 2011). Importantly, it wasn’t that upper-class friends did not show contagion, in fact, all friends, regardless of class experienced contagion for positive emotions. But, in terms of hostile emotions, only the lower-class friends unintentionally took on their friend’s emotions.
This concludes Part II of the How the Rich are Different from the Poor series. I hope you are beginning to learn a lot about how social class shapes everyday psychological processes. Do these examples mirror what you’ve experienced in your everyday life? Let us know in the comments!
Kraus, MW, Horberg, EJ, Goetz, J, & Keltner, D. (2011). Social class rank, threat vigilance, and hostile reactivity Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin DOI: 10.1177/0146167211410987
Kraus MW, Côté S, & Keltner D (2010). Social class, contextualism, and empathic accuracy. Psychological science, 21 (11), 1716-23 PMID: 20974714