Posts Tagged Cognitive Decline

Migraines Painful — But Don’t Lead to Dementia


Migraines Painful -- But Don't Lead to DementiaResearch from Brigham and Women’s Hospital has shown that migraines are not associated with cognitive decline.

While migraines affect about 20 percent of the female population, there are many unanswered questions surrounding this complex disease, according to the researchers.

Previous studies linked migraines to an increased risk of stroke and structural brain lesions, but until this new study it had been unclear whether migraines had other negative consequences, such as dementia or cognitive decline.

“Previous studies on migraines and cognitive decline were small and unable to identify a link between the two,” said Pamela Rist, a research fellow in the Division of Preventive Medicine at BWH, and lead author on this study. “Our study was large enough to draw the conclusion that migraines, while painful, are not strongly linked to cognitive decline.”

The research team analyzed data from the Women’s Health Study, which included nearly 40,000 women, 45 years and older.

They analyzed data from 6,349 women who provided information about migraine status at baseline and then participated in cognitive testing during followup.

Participants were classified into four groups: No history of migraine, migraine with aura (transient neurology symptoms mostly of the visual field), migraine without aura, and past history of migraine. Cognitive testing was carried out in two-year intervals up to three times.

“Compared with women with no history of migraine, those who experienced migraine with or without aura did not have significantly different rates of cognitive decline,” she said.

“This is an important finding for both physicians and patients. Patients with migraine and their treating doctors should be reassured that migraine may not have long-term consequences on cognitive function.”

There is still a lot that is unknown about migraines, she acknowledged, noting that more research needs to be done to understand the consequences of migraine on the brain and to optimize treatment strategies.

The study was published online by the British Medical Journal.

Source: Brigham and Women’s Hospital

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Regular Use of Computer Program Improves Seniors’ Memory


Regular Use of Computer Program Improves Seniors MemoryA new study by UCLA researchers finds that regular use of computerized memory and language training can help seniors.

Age-related memory decline affects approximately 40 percent of older adults. The cognitive decline is characterized by self-perception of memory loss and a decline in memory performance.

This was one of the first studies to assess the cognitive effects of a computerized memory training program. Researchers found that dedicated use of the program significantly improved memory and language skills among older adults.

In the study, researchers followed 59 participants with an average age of 84. Participants were recruited from local retirement communities.

Seniors were divided into two groups. The first group used a brain fitness program for an average of 73, 20-minute sessions, over a six-month period; the second group performed 45 20-minute sessions times during the same period.

The first group demonstrated significantly higher improvement in memory and language skills, compared to the second group.  Researchers said the study’s findings confirm that brain fitness tools may help improve language and memory.

Experts say that computer-aided training may ultimately help protect individuals from the cognitive decline associated with aging and Alzheimer’s disease.

Previous studies have shown that engaging in mental activities can help improve memory, but little research has been done to determine whether the numerous brain fitness games and memory training programs on the market are effective in improving memory.

Source: UCLA

Elderly woman on a computer photo by shutterstock.

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Alzheimer’s More Aggressive in Younger Elderly


Alzheimers More Aggressive in Younger Elderly New research shows that Alzheimer’s disease hits people in their 60s and 70s harder than people who are 80 years and older.

Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine note that the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer’s is age. In fact, by the age of 85, the likelihood of developing the dreaded neurological disorder is roughly 50 percent, they say.

But in their study, they found that the “younger elderly” — those in their 60s and 70s — showed higher rates of cognitive decline and faster rates of tissue loss in brain regions that are vulnerable during the early stages of Alzheimer’s, according to Dominic Holland, Ph.D., a researcher in the Department of Neurosciences at UC San Diego and the study’s first author.

“Additionally cerebrospinal fluid biomarker levels indicate a greater disease burden in younger than in older individuals,” he said.

Holland and his colleagues, using imaging and biomarker data from participants in the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, examined 723 people, ages 65 to 90 years, who were categorized as either cognitively normal, with mild cognitive impairment (an intermediate stage between normal, age-related cognitive decline and dementia) or suffering from full-blown Alzheimer’s disease (AD).

The findings have implications for diagnosing the disease — which currently afflicts an estimated 5.6 million Americans, a number expected to triple by 2050 — and efforts to find new treatments, the researchers said.

At present, there is no cure for Alzheimer’s and existing therapies do not slow or stop the disease’s progression.

A key feature in the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s is its “relentless progressive course,” Holland said.

“Patients typically show marked deterioration year after year. If older patients are not showing the same deterioration from one year to the next, doctors may be hesitant to diagnose AD, and thus these patients may not receive appropriate care, which can be very important for their quality of life.”

Holland said it’s not clear why the disease is more aggressive among the younger elderly.

“It may be that patients who show onset of dementia at an older age, and are declining slowly, have been declining at that rate for a long time,” added co-author Linda McEvoy, Ph.D., associate professor of radiology. “But because of cognitive reserve or other still-unknown factors that provide ‘resistance’ against brain damage, clinical symptoms do not manifest till later age.”

Another possibility is that older patients may be suffering from mixed dementia — a combination of Alzheimer’s and other neurological conditions, Holland said. These patients might withstand the effects of Alzheimer’s until other adverse factors, such as brain lesions caused by cerebrovascular disease, take hold. At that time, Alzheimer’s can only be definitively diagnosed by an autopsy, he said.

Clinical trials to find new treatments for the disease may be affected by the differing rates of progression, researchers said.

“Our results show that if clinical trials of candidate therapies predominately enroll older elderly, who show slower rates of change over time, the ability of a therapy to successfully slow disease progression may not be recognized, leading to failure of the clinical trial,” said Holland. “It’s critical to take into account age as a factor when enrolling subjects for AD clinical trials.”

While the obvious downside of the findings is that younger patients with Alzheimer’s lose more of their productive years, “the good news in all of this is that our results indicate those who survive into the later years before showing symptoms of AD will experience a less aggressive form of the disease,” Holland concluded.

The research appears online in the journal PLOS One.

Source: University of California, San Diego

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