Posts Tagged Key Role

Multi-Language Environment Affects Child’s Emotional Development


Multi-Language Environment Affects Childs Emotional DevelopmentIn a melting pot of cultures, many parents raise their children in a multilingual environment.

While children generally benefit from the cross-cultural exposure and linguistic experience, researchers are discovering that parents often switch between languages during emotional situations.

A new research study reviews this linguistic phenomenon to better understand how using different languages to discuss and express emotions in a multilingual family might play an important role in children’s emotional development.

Psychological scientists Stephen Chen and Qing Zhou of the University of California, Berkeley and Morgan Kennedy of Bard College say the findings suggest the particular language parents choose to use when discussing and expressing emotion can have significant impacts on children’s emotional understanding, experience, and regulation.

“Over the past few years, there’s been a steadily growing interest in the languages multilingual individuals use to express emotions,” said Chen.

“We were interested in the potential clinical and developmental implications of emotion-related language shifts, particularly within the context of the family.”

Existing research from psychological science underscores the fact that language plays a key role in emotion because it allows the speakers to articulate, conceal, or discuss feelings.

When parents verbally express their emotions, they contribute to their children’s emotional development by providing them a model of how emotions can be articulated and regulated.

When parents discuss emotion, they help their children to accurately label and consequently understand their own emotions. This explicit instruction can further help children to better regulate their emotions.

Research from the linguistic field suggests that when bilingual individuals switch languages, the way they experience emotions changes as well.

Bilingual parents may use a specific language to express an emotional concept because they feel that language provides a better cultural context for expressing the emotion.

For example, a native Finnish speaker may be more likely to use English to tell her children that she loves them because it is uncommon to explicitly express emotions in Finnish.

Thus, the language that a parent chooses to express a particular concept can help to provide cues that reveal his or her emotional state.

Researchers say that language choice may also influence how children experience emotion — such expressions can potentially elicit a greater emotional response when spoken in the child’s native language.

Researchers are unsure if shifting from one language to another may help children to regulate their emotional response by using a less emotional, non-native language as a way to decrease negative arousal.

Further, the ability to shift languages may help a child model culture specific emotional regulation.

Researchers believe evidence supports the premise that a child’s emotional competence is fundamentally shaped by a multilingual environment.

These findings may be particularly useful in the development of intervention programs for immigrant families, helping intervention staff to be aware of how the use of different languages in various contexts can have an emotional impact.

“Our aim in writing this review was to highlight what we see as a rich new area of cross-disciplinary research,” said Chen.

“We’re especially excited to see how the implications of emotion-related language switching can be explored beyond the parent-child dyad – for example, in marital interactions, or in the context of therapy and other interventions.”

The study findings are published in the journal Perspectives on Psychological Science.

Source: Association for Psychological Science

Happy family photo by shutterstock.

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Leave a comment

Keep the TV or Computer on At Night? You’re at Greater Risk for Depression


Keep the TV or Computer on At Night? You are at Greater Risk for DepressionIf hamsters are anything like their human counterparts, keeping your TV or computer on at night while you sleep in the same room could not only disrupt your sleep — it could lead to clinical depression.

Any kind of light in your bedroom — a streetlight, a TV, likely even a nightlight — may lead to the depressive symptoms, if exposed to such light for at least a month.

While hamsters exposed to light at night for four weeks showed evidence of depressive symptoms, those symptoms essentially disappeared after about two weeks if they returned to normal lighting conditions.

Even changes in the brain that occurred after hamsters lived with chronic light at night reversed themselves after returning to a more normal light cycle.

These findings add to the growing evidence that suggest chronic exposure to artificial light at night may play some role in the rising rates of depression in humans during the past 50 years, said Tracy Bedrosian, lead author of the study and doctoral student in neuroscience at Ohio State University.

The good news is that the effects of sleep loss are readily reversed with some normal, completely-dark sleep. Use your TV’s sleep timer function to turn it off after you go to sleep. Shut down your computer before going to bed.

This study is the latest in a series out of Nelson’s lab that have linked chronic exposure to light at night to depression and obesity in animal models.

The new study found that one particular protein found in the brain of hamsters — and humans — may play a key role in how light at night leads to depression.

They found that blocking effects of that protein, called tumor necrosis factor, prevented the development of depressive-like symptoms in hamsters even when they were exposed to light at night.

The study involved two experiments using female Siberian hamsters, which had their ovaries removed to ensure that hormones produced in the ovary would not interfere with the results.

In the first experiment, half of the hamsters spent eight weeks in a standard light-dark cycle of 16 hours of light (150 lux) and 8 hours of total darkness each day. The other half spent the first four weeks with 16 hours of normal daylight (150 lux) and 8 hours of dim light — 5 lux, or the equivalent of having a television on in a darkened room.

Then, these hamsters were moved back to a standard light cycle for either one week, two weeks or four weeks before testing began.

They were then given a variety of behavior tests. Results showed that hamsters exposed to chronic dim light at night showed less total activity during their active period each day when compared to those in standard lighting conditions.

Those hamsters exposed to dim light also showed greater depressive symptoms than did the others– such as less interest in drinking sugar water that they usually enjoy.

But within two weeks of returning to a standard light cycle, hamsters exposed to dim night light showed no more depressive-like symptoms than did hamsters that always had standard lighting. In addition, they returned to normal activity levels.

After the behavioral testing, the hamsters were sacrificed and the researchers studied a part of their brains called the hippocampus, which plays a key role in depressive disorders.

Findings showed that hamsters exposed to dim light showed a variety of changes associated with depression.

Most importantly, hamsters that lived in dim light showed increased expression of the gene that produces tumor necrosis factor. TNF is one of a large family of proteins called cytokines — chemical messengers that are mobilized when the body is injured or has an infection. These cytokines cause inflammation in their effort to repair an injured or infected area of the body. However, this inflammation can be damaging when it is constant, as happens in hamsters exposed to dim light at night.

“Researchers have found a strong association in people between chronic inflammation and depression,” said Nelson, who is a member of Ohio State’s Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research.

“That’s why it is very significant that we found this relationship between dim light at night and increased expression of TNF.”

In addition, results showed that hamsters that lived in dim light had a significantly reduced density of dendritic spines — hairlike growths on brain cells which are used to send chemical messages from one cell to another.

Changes such as this have been linked to depression, Bedrosian said.

However, hamsters that were returned to a standard light-dark cycle after four weeks of dim light at night saw their TNF levels and even their density of dendritic spines return essentially to normal.

“Changes in dendritic spines can happen very rapidly in response to environmental factors,” Bedrosian said.

In a second experiment, the researchers tested just how important TNF might be. Results showed that hamsters exposed to dim light at night did not show any more depressive-like symptoms than standard-light hamsters if they were given XPro1595. However, the drug did not seem to prevent the reduction of dendritic spine density in hamsters exposed to dim light.

These results provide further evidence of the role TNF may play in the depressive symptoms seen in hamsters exposed to dim light. But the fact that XPro1595 did not affect dendritic spine density means that more needs to be learned about exactly how TNF works, Nelson said.

Source: Ohio State University

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Leave a comment

OOAworld

Travel, Art, Stories, Photos, Stories, Film, Videos, Animation, Drawings, Writing

cancer killing recipe

Just another WordPress.com site

Blah Blah Blog

You'll thank me later

Psychological Espresso

A regular shot of psychological thought

NOM's adventures

NOM's journey through this awesome thing called life

Psychie blog

just awesome blog on mental health

Mirth and Motivation

Motivate. Elevate. Laugh and Live Positively!

Russel Ray Photos

Life from Southern California, mostly San Diego County

The Sunset Blog

Inspirational sunset & nature photos by Psychic healer Eva Tenter

Wisdom is Found Through Experience

le Silence de Sion © 2012-2014

Ray Ferrer - Emotion on Canvas

** OFFICIAL Site of Artist Ray Ferrer **

Bucket List Publications

Indulge- Travel, Adventure, & New Experiences

Quiet Mystic

Meditative and divinatory support for introverts

Jesus’ Wedding

An Integrated Theory of the Twin Paths of the Spiritual Journey that lead to Inner Transformation by using Symbolism, Myth, and Parable.

Belle Grove Plantation Bed and Breakfast

Birthplace of James Madison and Southern Plantation

RHF INDIA

The Complete Human Body

Manipal's Photo Blog

Because a picture paints a thousand words