Posts Tagged New Zealand

Early Relationships Key to Happiness


Positive social relationships in childhood and adolescence are the key to adult happiness, according to new research.

Researchers at Deakin University and the Murdoch Children’s Research Institute in Australia also found that academic achievement had little effect on adult well-being.

A team of researchers led by Craig Olsson, Ph.D., analyzed data for 804 people, who were followed for 32 years in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (DMHDS) in New Zealand.

They particularly focused on the relationship between social connectedness in childhood, language development in childhood, social connectedness in adolescence, academic achievement in adolescence, and well-being in adulthood.

Social connectedness in childhood was defined by parent and teacher ratings of the child being liked, not being alone, and the child’s level of confidence. Social connectedness in adolescence was demonstrated by social attachments with parents and peers, as well as participation in youth groups and sporting clubs.

The researchers found a strong connection between child and adolescent social connectedness and adult well-being, noting this illustrates the “enduring significance of positive social relationships over the lifespan to adulthood.”

The researchers also found that the connection from early language development, through adolescent academic achievement, to adult well-being was weak, which is in line with existing research showing a lack of association between socioeconomic prosperity and happiness.

The analysis also suggests that the social and academic paths are not related to one another, and may actually be parallel paths, the researchers said.

“If these pathways are separate, then positive social development across childhood and adolescence requires investments beyond development of the academic curriculum,” the researchers conclude.

The study is published online in Journal of Happiness Studies.

Source: Springer

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Anxiety More Common in the Western World, Depression in East


Depression and anxiety affects evend society in the world, according to what is believed to be the world’s most comprehensive study of these mental disorders, conducted by researchers from the University of Queensland, Australia.ry country a

The researchers carried out two separate studies that focused on anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder (also called clinical depression). Researchers analyzed surveys of clinical anxiety and depression that had been conducted across 91 countries, involving more than 480,000 people.Anxiety More Common in the Western World, Depression in East

In Western societies, anxiety disorders were more commonly reported than in non-Western societies, including countries that are currently experiencing conflict.

About 10 percent of people in North America, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand were experiencing clinical anxiety compared to approximately eight percent in the Middle East and six percent in Asia.

The opposite was true for depression, with those in Western countries least likely to feel depressed. Researchers found that depression was the lowest in North America and highest in certain areas of Asia and the Middle East.

Approximately nine percent of people experience major depression in Asian and Middle Eastern countries, such as India and Afghanistan, compared with about four percent in North and South America, Australia, New Zealand and East Asian countries including China, Thailand and Indonesia.

Study co-author Alize Ferrari said that the findings suggest that depression may be more common in parts of the world where conflict is occurring.  However, she emphasizes that it can be a difficult task to get hold of good quality data from low and middle income countries.

Amanda Baxter, who led the study, also added that researchers should use caution when comparing mental disorders across different societies and countries.

“Measuring mental disorders across different cultures is challenging because many factors can influence the reported prevalence of anxiety disorders,” said Baxter.

Source: The University of Queensland 

Person holding head with one hand photo by shutterstock.

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Heavy Women Have Lower Quality Relationships, But Same Is Not True For Men, Study Finds


The research—conducted jointly by Professor Latner and New Zealand clinical psychologist Dr. Alice D. Boyes addresses body image, weight, romantic relationships, and differences between men and women.

Associations between body mass index (BMI) and relationship quality and other partner/relationship perceptions were investigated in 57 couples in New Zealand. Heavier women had lower quality relationships, which they predicted were more likely to end. They partnered with less desirable men and thought their partners would rate them as less warm/trustworthy.

The male partners of heavier women judged the women’s bodies less positively and men rated heavier women as poorer matches to their ideal partners for attractiveness/vitality. In contrast, men’s BMIs were generally not associated with relationship functioning. These findings point to the potential mechanisms that may contribute to heavier women’s relationship difficulties.

“Prejudice and discrimination are commonly directed at overweight individuals. However, few previous studies have examined whether weight stigma occurs within established romantic relationships. Our results suggest it does,” said Dr. Latner.

via Heavy Women Have Lower Quality

English: A schematic showing the group marriag...

English: A schematic showing the group marriage relationship. The picture illustrates that 4 types of relationships are possible (male-male, male-female, female-male, female-female), between each of the involved persons in the marriage scheme. The dotted lines means that more parties can be added to the scheme. Note:The arrows between the symbols only connects one symbol on each side. I.e. 1 male (or female) symbol with 1 male (or female) symbol. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

s, But Same Is Not True For Men, Study Finds.

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